Vilyam thobiyas..

hneyw tXm_nbmkv dn¦ÄtSm_v sâ PohnX¯nte¡v Hcp Xncnªpt\m«w…

dh. C. hÕIpamÀ

apJhpc
D¨\oNXzhpw PmXnhyhØbpw sImSn Ip¯nhmWncp¶ sX¡³ XncphnXmwIqdn kphntij¯nsâ Zo]inJtb´n IS¶ph¶ Ejnhcy\mbncp¶p hneyw tXm_nbmkv dn¦ÄtSm_v. 1806 G{]n 25 \v sX¡³ XncphnXmwIqdn ImepIp ¯nb At±l¯n\v sR«n¸n ¡p¶ ImgvNIfmbncp¶p ImWm\mbXv. Hcp ]nSnbmfpI fpsS t£asFizcy¯n\v th­n _lp`qcn]£w hcp¶ A[xIrXhÀ¤s¯ I¶pIm ensf t]mse ]WnsbSp¸n ¡p¶ ImgvN. Cu P\hn`m Ks¯ hntamNn¸n¡p¶Xn\v Hcp ]Xnäm­v ChtcmsSm¸w Pohn¨v kphntij¯nsâ {]Imiw ]c¯n D¶Xnbn te¡v ssI]nSn¨pbÀ¯nb alXvhyànbmbncp¶p dn¦Ä täm_v.

P\\hpw _meyImehpw

PÀ½\nbnse knte jnb F¶ ]«W¯n kn UÂhnUvkv F¶ Øe¯v CShI ]«¡mc \mbncp¶ tKm«nse dn¦ÄtSm_nbpsS {]Ya ]p{X\mbn 1770 BKÌv amkw 8þmw XobXn hneywtXm_nbmkv dn¦ÄtSm_v `qPmX\mbn. GgphbÊphsc im´kpµcamb {Kma¯n amXm ]nXm¡tfmsSm¸w Xmakn¨pw XpSÀ¶v 9 hÀjw t]mf­nse hmÀkm \Kc¯n ]nXmhn sâ CShI ip{iqjbpambpÅ _Ô¯nepw Xmaknt¡­nh¶p. sNdnb {]mb¯n Xs¶ hnZym`ymk¯nepw, B ßob ]cnt]mjW¯nepw th­pthmfw A`yk\w e`n¨p.

anjWdn{]hÀ¯\¯n tebv¡pÅ hgn¯ncnhv.

hneyw täm_nbmkn\v 16 hbÊpÅt¸mÄ Xsâ ]nXmhv sIm«mc¯nse Aca\ ]«¡mc \mbn \nban¡s¸«p. Cu ImeL«¯n kÀÆIem imebn tNÀ¶v ]Tn¡phm \pÅ Ahkcw e`n¨p. {]IrXymeÚmioe\mbncp¶p Cu _me³ kl]mTnIfn \n¶pw Häs¸«p Pohn¡m³ {ian¨p. F¶m ssZh`à \mb Hcp Iq«pImc³ X\n¡p ­mbncp¶p. Ct±lhpambpÅ Hcpan¨pÅ bm{XIÄ Xsâ PohnXs¯ kzm[o\n¡m³ CSbmbn. bm{XIÄ ¡nSbn ]eanjWdnamcpsS PohNcn{X ]pkvXI§fpw CXpambn _Ô s¸« ]{X§fpw hmbnbv ¡m\hkcw e`n¨p. CsXÃmw a\Ên kw{Kln¨psIm­v kÀÆIemimebn \n¶pw ho«ntebpÅ bm{Xbn ssZhnI kwkÀ¤w A\p`hn¡pIbpw, ssZhw Xt¶mSv CSs]Sp¶Xmbn A\p`hs¸SpIbpw ssZhnIip{iqjbv¡v th­n Xm³ hnfnbv¡s¸«ncn¡p¶psh¶v icn¡pw t_m²ys¸ SpIbpw sNbvXp.

CXn\nSbn 1793þ kntejymbn “^oÂ’ {]`phnsâ aIs\ ]Tn¸n¡p¶Xn X\n¡v e`n¨ Ahkcw Hcp anjWdnbmbn Xocp¶Xn\v Xs¶ t{]cn¸n¨psIm­ncp¶p. Cu {]`phnsâ `mcy \sÃmcp {InkvXob hnizmknbmbncp¶p. Ahcn \n¶v kphn tij {]tNmZ\w th­pthmfw e`n¨p.

Hcp anjWdnbmbn t]mIp¶Xn\pÅ Xsâ A`nemjw amXm]nXm¡sf Adnbn¨p. B kab¯v dn¦Ä tSm_nbpsS XojvWXtbdnb {InkvXob PohnXw Xs¶ At\Isc BIÀjn¡phm\nSbmbn. 15þmw \qäm­n BhnÀ`hn¨ samtdhnb³ kwLS\ bn {]hÀ¯n¡m³ B{Klw {]ISn¸n¨psIm­ncn ¡p¶Xn\nSbn I¡«bnse Cw¥ojpImcpsS CSbn {]hÀ¯n¡m³ £Ww e`n¨p. AXv kvt\lt¯msS \nckn¨p. ImcWw D¶Xcmb Cw¥ojpImcpsSbnSbnse {]hÀ¯\s¯¡mÄ kphntijw Adnªn«nÃm¯ km[p¡fpsS CSbn {]hÀ¯n¡m\mWm{Kln¨Xv.

Fkv.]n.kn.sIþbn XpS§nb {]hÀ¯\w

dn¦Ä tSm_nsbIpdn¨p At\zjn¨ samtd _nb³ kwLS\bv¡v FÃmhcn \n¶pw \à A`n {]mbamWv e`n¨Xv. AXn HcmÄ dn¦Ätäm_nsb ¡pdn¨v C{]Imcw FgpXn “” {]kwK¯n hfsc kaÀ°\mWv. Xsâ c£nXmhmb {InkvXp hns\ Xmev]cyambn aäpÅhtcmSv km£n¡p¶p. At±l ¯nsâ {]kwKhpw {]hr¯nbpw H¶pt]mse P\ s¯ hnizmk¯n DbÀ¯¡h®w iànbpÅ hbmWv. Rm³ Cbmfn ImWp¶ Hcp hntijKpWw ssZht¯mSpÅ Xsâ clky kwkÀ¤w BIp¶p”.

XpSÀ¶v 1796 Pqsse 24 \v ]«Xz ip{iq jbnte¡v {]thin¨p. BKÌvamkw 17þmw XobXn e­\n F¯n. dn¦ÄtSm_v e­\n F¯nb tijamWv SPCK anj³ (The Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge) kwLS\bmWv Xs¶ \nban¨ncn ¡p¶sX¶v a\Ênem¡m³ IgnªXv. {InkvXob hnizmkw {]Ncn¸n¡p¶Xn\v Bw¥n¡³ k`Ifm 1698þ {]kvXpX kwLS\ cq]oIrXambn. e­\n h¨v Cw¥ojv `mj \¶mbn ]Tn¨ dn¦ÄtSm_v CtXmsSm¸w kphntij {]hÀ¯\hpw Bcw`n¨p. C³Uybnte¡pÅ bm{Xsb ]än C{]Imc sagpXn “”ssZhw Fs¶ FhnsS Abbv¡psa¶v Rm³ Adnbp¶nÃ. F¦nepw hfsc kt´mjt¯msS, FhnsS Ab¡p¶pthm AhnsS t]mIm³ Im¯ncn ¡p¶p. Cu temIw apgph\pw ssZh¯ntâXmWv Fs¶ kw_Ôn¨pÅ ssZthmt±iw AhnSt¯¡v AdnbmatÃm.” dn¦Ä tSm_v e­\n \n¶pw bm{X Xncn¨p. 1797 HIvtSm_À þ I¡«bn h¶p tNÀ¶p. I¡«bn h¶nd§nb dn¦Ä tSm_n\vv \mY\nÃmsX Ipgªv InS¡p¶ Hcp k`sb ImWm³ Ignªp. 87 hbÊv {]mbap­mbncp¶ IoÀ\m³Uv Bbncp¶p k`bv¡v t\XrXzw hln¨ncp¶Xv. At±l ¯n \n¶v Ipds¨ms¡ klIcWhpw, t{]mÕml \hpw e`ns¨¦nepw CXv A[nIw apt¶m«psIm­p t]mIm³ IgnªnÃ. hfsc Zmcn{Zy¯nembnXoÀ¶p. CsX¡pdn¨v dn¦Ä tSm_v C{]Imcw FgpXnbn cn¡p¶p. “”I¡«bn F\n¡v H¶pw sN¿m³ km[n¨nÃ. kvt\lnX·mcpsS klmbw IqSmsX \nXyhr¯nt]mepw \S¡p¶nÃ. lnµn ]Tn¨ tijw cmPalmÄ Ip¶pIfn t]mbn anj³the Bcw`n ¡Wsa¶m{Kln¡p¶p. AXn\v km[n¨nsæn Cw¥­n\v XncnsI t]mIpw” XpSÀ¶v FgpXn “”hmSIbv¡v Hcp hoSv FSp¡m³ \nÀÆmlanÃm¯Xp sIm­v Hcp ]ÅnbpsS apdnbn kpJanÃmsX InS¡p¶p.” hoSnÃmsXbpw tcmKip{iqjbv¡pw BcpsSbpw klmbanÃmsXbpw Ccn¡p¶ AhØ bn Hcp hÀjw Ignªv Cw¥­nte¡v I¸ÂIbdn. I¸Â bm{Xbv¡vt]mepw ]Ww CÃmbncp¶p. I¸Â bm{Xbn c­p Ip«nIsf ]Tn¸n¨p In«nb ^okp sIm­mWv bm{XmIqen sImSp¯Xv

Cw¥­n sN¶tijw RmbdmgvN tXmdpw ]ÅnIfn {]kwKn¨pw PohnX kÔmcW¯n\mbn Hcp ]ÅnIqS¯n A²ym]I\mbpw tPmen sNbvXp t]m¶p. CXn\nSbn e­³ anj³ kwLS\bpambn _Ôs¸SpIbpw AhcpsS \nÀt±i {]Imcw sXt¡C³Uybn anjWdnbmbn t]mIphm³ Xocpam\n¨p. 1804 G{]n 10þmw XobXn {Im³, Un{Kbn©kv, hmkv F¶o aq¶v anjWdnamtcmSpIqSn dn¦Ä tSm_v Cw¥­n \n¶pw I¸Â Ibdn. bm{Xmat²y KpUvtKm¸v ap\¼n Hcp amkw Xmakn¨p. AhnsS \n¶pw 1804 Unkw_À 4þmw XobXn XcwKw ]mSn F¶ Øe¯v h¶nd§n C³Uy³ anj\pIfpsS BØm\ambncp¶p XcwKw]mSn. IS¯ncIÄ h¶Sn¡p¶ Øew F¶mWnXn \À°w.

\qdv hÀj§Ä¡v ap¼v s{]m«mÌm³Uv anjWdnbmbn Um\njvImc\mb koK³_mÄKv {]hÀ¯n¨ncp¶ Øeambncp¶p XcwKw]mSn. \nÀ±b\mb {_n«ojv KhÀ®À \nan¯w koK³ _mÄKv 4 amkw PbnÂhmka\p`hnt¡­nbpw h¶p. XcwKw]mSnbn Xmakn¨ncp¶ dn¦Ä täm_n¡v H¶v a\Ênembn. sImbv¯p hfscbp­v kXyw the¡m tcm Npcp¡w. AXpsIm­p Xsâ {]nbktlmZc³ \otbm GÀWÌn\v FgpXn. “”\obpw Hcp anjWdnbmbn C³Uybn hcm³ ssZhw \nsâ lrZb¯n {]hÀ¯n¡s«. hmÕeyIpSpw_s¯ hn«p ]ncnbp ¶Xpw, ZpÀLSamb ISÂbm{Xbpw `mj]Tn¡p¶ Xn\pÅ t¢ihpw \ap¡v {]bmkapÅ kwKXnbmWv. F¶m ssZh¯n \n¶pw Hcp ZÀi\w e`n¨m A\pkcn¡pI. Rm³ Hcp sNdnb IpSnen kam[m\ t¯msS Ccn¡p¶p.”

Xs¶msSm¸w Cw¥­n \n¶pw h¶ Xsâ Iq«pImcmb {Im³, Un{Sbn©kv F¶ anjWdnamÀ hnimJ]«W¯n kphntij {]hÀ¯\w Bcw`n ¡m³ AhntSbv¡vt]mbn. Ahscbpw AhcpsS {]hÀ¯\§sfbpw t\cn ImWm\mbn 1805 sabvamkw XcwKw]mSnbn \n¶pw ISÂamÀ¤w a{Zmkn t]mbn. AhnsS Xmakn¨v kphntij {]hÀ ¯\w \S¯m³ Xsâ kplr¯p¡Ä \nÀ_Ôn¨n«pw dn¦Ätäm_n¡v a\ÊnÃmbncp¶p. ImcWw I¡« bnse A\p`hambncp¶p. a{Zmknse ]«W¯n bqtdm]y³Imcmbncp¶p A[nIhpw. a{Zmkn Xmakn¨phcsh Nne kvt\lnXÀ h¶v XcwKw ]mSnbpambpÅ _Ôw Dt]£n¡Wsa¶pw {iocwK ]«W¯n Hcp ]«mfNm¹n³ DtZymKw hmKvZm\w sN¿pIbpw sNbvXp. CXv Hcp ITn\ ]co£bmbn«mWv X\n¡v A\p`hs¸«Xv. F¶m AXn hnPbn¨p. Hcpamk¯n\ptijw XcwKw]mSnbn aS§nh¶v Xangv`mj ]Tn¡pIbpw CsXmsSm¸w kphntij {]hÀ¯\hpw sNbvXph¶p.

kphntij{]hÀ¯\w iàn{]m]n¨tXmSp IqSn FXnÀ¸pw iàns¸«p. Xm³ AhnSwhn«p t]mIphm³ k½À±§Ä Gdn. FhnsS t]mIW sa¶dnbmsX ssZhlnX¯n\mbn {]mÀ°\tbmsS Im¯ncp¶p. Cu kab¯v Hcp {]mbapÅ a\pjy³ Xsâ Øe¯v Ccp¶qdne[nIw BfpIÄ {InkvXym\n IfmIm³ B{Kln¡ps¶¶pw kXyamÀ¤w D]tZin¨p sImSp¡m³ Bfnsöpw ]dªt¸mÄ XncphnXmw Iqdnte¡v t]mIm³ XoÀ¨s¸Sp¯n. bm{Xbv¡v ]Wtam aäp kuIcy§tfm H¶pw CÃmXncns¡ ssZh¯n am{Xw B{ibn¨p. “”kphntijamIp¶ Bbp[w [cn¨p bp²¯n\v t]mIp¶Xn Rm³ XoÀ¯pw Hcp _elo\\mWv. F¶m t]mÀ¡fw kao]n¡pt´mdpw ImcpWyhm\mb ssZhw Fsâ _elo\Xbn Fs¶ iàoIcn¡p¶p. Cu t]mÀ ¡f¯n Rm³ t\cs¯ acn¨p t]mbm Ah\p th­n ]¯p {]mhiyw acn¡m³ CSh¶nÃtÃm F¶pÅ hyk\w am{Xta F\n¡p­mIpIbpÅq.”

Xangv `mjbn Hcp hn[w ]mÞnXyw kn²n¨tXmSpIqSn {InkvXobk`bpsS ZpØnXnbpw a\Ênem¡m³ Ignªp. Xncp\Âthen k`bv¡v th­ t\XrXzw CÃmXncp¶ kab¯v lnµp¡fn \n¶pw apÉo§fn \n¶pw \nch[n ]oU\§Ä {InkvXym\nIÄ t\cntS­nh¶p. ]ÅnIÄ hsc Xoh¨v \in¸n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. CXv a\Ênem¡n Xncp\Âthen k`bpsS t\Xr Øm\w GsäSp¡p ¶Xn\pw e­³ anjWdn kwLS\bpsS {]hÀ¯\w Bcw`n¡p¶Xn\pambn AhntS¡v t]mbn.

Cu kabw AXmbXv 8þ6þ1805  FÂ. Fw. Fkv \v C{]Imcw FgpXn “”Xncp\Âthen {InkvXym \nIfpsS IjvS¸mSpIÄ tI« Rm³ hfsc hyk \n¡p¶p. {InkvXpamÀ¤w kzoIcn¡p¶hsc Ba¯n en«v ITn\amb shbne¯pw aªnepw C«p IjvSs¸ Sp¯p¶p. lnµp¡fpsS DÕh¯n\v Dugnb the sN¿n¡p¶Xn\v tZtlm]{Zhw Gev]n¨v \nÀ_Ôn ¸n¡p¶p. At\Iw t]À CsXÃmw kln¨p {InkvXym \nIfmbn hnizmk¯n \ne\n¡p¶p.”

1806 s^{_phcnbn 140 cq] sImSp¯p Hcp ]t¯amcn]nSn¨p XcwKw]mSnbn \n¶pw kntemWpw, NneZzo]pIfpw kµÀin¨v HSphn Xq¯pIpSnbn h¶nd§n. Hcp U¨v ]Ånbn cm{Xn Bcm[\bn {]kwKn¨p. XpSÀ¶v ]e Øe§fnepw {]kwK§Ä \S¯n. Xsâ bm{XbpsS _p²nap«pw, Xsâ XojvWXtbmSp IqSnb {]hÀ¯\hpw I­n«v Hcp t]mÀ«vKokv hym]mcn dn¦ÄtSm_v \v k©m c¯n\v Hcp IpXncsb k½m\n¨p. CXv \nan¯w ]e Øe§Ä kµÀin¨v kphntijw {]kwKn¡p ¶Xn\pw, hnizkn¨ At\Isc kv\m\s¸Sp¯pIbpw sNbvXp.

sX¡³ XncphnXmwIqdnse anjWdn{]hÀ¯\w

1806 G{]nÂamkw 13þmw XobXn dn¦Ä täm_v ]mfbw tIm«bn \n¶pw XncphnXmwIqdnte¡v bm{XXncn¨p. bm{Xbv¡v ap¼v At±lw C{]Imc sagpXn. “”]nimNp¡sf Bcm[n¡p¶ XncphnXmw Iqdnte¡v Rm³ CXm t]mIp¶p. AhnsS Fs´Ãmw kw`hn¡psa¶v AdnªpIqSm Nnet¸mÄ acWw Xs¶ kw`hnt¨bv¡mw. F¶mepw Rm³ `bs¸Sp ¶nÃ.” IpXnc¸pd¯v bm{X sNbvX dn¦Ä tSm_v G{]n amkw 24þmw XobXn Bcphmsamgnhgn Ggp ssa Ing¡pÅ hS¡³Ipfw F¶ Øe¯v hs¶¯n ]ntäZnhkw 25þmw XobXn ssaemSnbn F¯ntNÀ¶p. CXv sX¡³ XncphnXmwIqdns\ kw_Ôn¨v Hcp AhnkvacWob Zn\ambncp¶p. e­³ anjWdn kaql¯nsâ {]YaanjWdnbpw {InkvXp tbiphnsâ Hcp bYmÀ° injy\mbncp¶ B ]pWy ]pcpj³ XncphnXmwIqdnte¡v {]thin¨ Zn\w ssaemSn tI{µam¡n {]hÀ¯\w Bcw`n¨ dn¦Ä tSm_v amä¯nsâ iwsJmen apg¡nsIm­v kaql¯n kaqe ]cnhÀ¯\¯n\pw {InkvXphn IqSnbpÅ {]Imi¯nte¡pw A[xIrXhÀ¤¯n\v iàn]IÀ¶psImSp¯ thZamWnIy¯nsâ ]qÀ® klIcWt¯mSpIqSn Bcw`n¨ ssaemSnbnse {]hÀ¯\w shÃphnfnIÄ \ndªXmbncp¶p. IpSnen\pÅnse Xmakw, FXnÀ¸pIÄ, tIÄhn ¡mcpsS A`mhw F¶m £atbmSpIqSnbpÅ {]hÀ¯\¯nsâ ^eambn ssaemSnbn Hcp ]ÅnØm]nt¡­XmhiyamsW¶v At±l¯n\v t_m²ys¸«p. A\phmZ¯n\mbn sIm¨nbn dknUâmbncp¶ sa¡msf ImWm\mbn At±lw ssaemSnbn \n¶pw bm{X Xncn¨v bm{Xmat²y A©psX§n t]mIbp­mbn. AhnsS \n¶pw sImÃw, Be¸pg, apXemb Øe§fn kphntijw {]kwKn¨psIm­p sIm¨nbnse¯n. sIm¨nbnse ¯nb dn¦Ä täm_ns\ sa¡msf kt´mjt¯msS kzoIcn¨p. sIm¨nbn Xmakn¨v {]hÀ¯n¡m\pÅ sa¡msfbpsS Bhiyw hn\b]qÀÆw \nckn¨p. ImcWw ssaemSnbn ]Ån]Wn \S¡pIbmbncp¶p. F¶m ]Ån hbv¡p¶Xn\pÅ [\w sa¡msf hmKvZm\w sNbvXp. F¶m ]Ån]Wnbm³ A\p hmZw Xtc­ Znhm³ AXv \nckn¨p. amaqen\v hntcm[ ambn ]Ån]Wnbm³ k½Xn¡nsöv Znhm³Pn iTn¨p. CXn AXy´w hyk\w tXm¶nb dn¦³ tSm_v sa¡msfbpsS hmKvZm\¯n hnizkn¨p aS§n t]m¶p. XpSÀ¶v 1809  ssaemSnbn Hcp ]Ån ]Wnbm³ A\phmZw e`n¨p. thZamWnIy¯nsâ Xs¶ Øe¯v tIcf¯nsâ BZys¯ s{]m«Ìmâv ssZhmebw ]Wnbs¸«p.

1810 Bbt¸msg¡pw dn¦Ätäm_nsâ {]hÀ¯\w hfsc hnIkn¨p. Bdp]ÅnIÄ IqSn Øm]n¡s¸«p. XmacIpfw, A¯n¡mSv, ]q¯mew, ]n¨IpSnbncp¸v, tImhnÂhnf, Cu¯m¼pfn F¶o k`IfpsS ]ÅnItfmS\p_Ôn¨v kvIqfpIfpw Bcw`n¨p. {InkvXphns\ c£I\pw ssZhhpambn hnizkn¡p¶ GhÀ¡pw kv\m\w sImSp¡p¶ coXnbmWv Xm³ Ahew_n¨Xv. kv\m\s¸Sm³ hcp¶hÀ hnizmk{]amWw, ]¯pIev]\, IÀ¯m hnsâ {]mÀ°\, kv\m\w, Xncph¯mgw, CXnsâ AÀ°w a\Ênem¡Wambncp¶p.

dn¦ÄtSm_v ssaemSn BØm\ambn {]hÀ¯n¨ncp¶t¸mgpw, sImÃs¯ {]hÀ¯\¯n Bbncp¶t¸mgpw, Xncph\´]pcs¯ {_n«ojv dknUâmbncp¶ tIW tImfn³ sa¡msfbpw, At±l¯n\ptijw tIW tPm¬a¬tdmhns\bpw kµÀin¡p¶Xn\v hcpambncp¶p. I¸en Cd§n henbXpd kn.Fkv.sF ]ÅnsI«nSw Ccn¡p¶ Øe¯v Ccp¶v hn{ian¡mdp­mbncp¶p. Cu kµÀi\¯neqsSbpw hn{ia¯n\mbn Cu Øew sXcsªSp¯XneqsSbpamWv 1811  henbXpdbn Hcp Bcm[\ Øew Bcw`n¡m\nSbmbXv. Z£nW tIcf almbnShIbpsS Iogn dn¦ÄtSm_v sâ t]cn DÅ Htc Hcp Bcm[\mebw BÀ.än.Fw. kn.Fkv.sF henbXpdbmWv. C¶v Cu k`bv¡v 199 hÀjs¯ Ncn{X]mc¼cyap­v.

ssZh¯nepÅ Bgamb hnizmkhpw XymKw A\pjvTn¡m\pÅ a\Êpw GXv shÃphnfnsbbpw t\cnSm\pÅ Icp¯pamWv Hmtcm {InkvXym\n¡pw D­mbncnt¡­sX¶v At±lw ]Tn¸n¨p. {InkvXob hnizmkw Hcnbv¡epw `uXnIe£y§Ä¡v th­n BIcpsX¶v At±lw DZvt_m[n¸n¨p. Ft¸mgpw P\§fpsS CSbn ]mÀ¯psIm­v P\§Ä¡v th­n Pohn¡m³ B{Kln¨p. IjvS¸mSpIÄ A\p`hn¨ P\hn`mKt¯msSm¸w Pohn¡p¶Xv Xsâ PohnX {]amWambn kzoIcn¨p.

ITn\amb A²zm\¯nsâbpw t¢i ]qÀ®amb PohnX¯nsâbpw ^eambn BtcmKyw \jvSs¸« dn¦Ätäms_ 1816 P\phcn 18þmw XobXn hnizmknIsf ssaemSn k`bn Bcm[\bv¡v Hcpan¨pIq«n. AhnsS sh¨v thZamWnIy¯n\v ]«w \evIn. anjsâ apgph³ NpaXebpta¸n¨p.

1816 s^{_phcn 5 \v XncphnXmwIqÀ hn«p. XpSÀ¶v aem¡bn \n¶pw 1816 sk]väw_À 27 XobXnsh¨v FgpXnb Fgp¯pam{XamWv At±ls¯¡pdn¨pÅ Ahkm\hm¡pIÄ. dn¦Ä täm_nbpsS A´yw F§s\bmbncp¶p F¶v \ap¡dnbnÃ. bm{Xmat²y FsX¦nepw Øe¯v Adnbs¸Sm¯ Hcph\mbn Xr¡c§fn F¯nbn«p ­mhpw.

anjWdn {]hÀ¯\¯neqsS {InkvXp hn\pth­n PohnXw Dgnªvh¨ dn¦Ätäm_v Xsâ IpSpw_mwK§tfmSv bm{X]dªv Cd§n¯ncn¨ tijw Xsâ PohnX¯nepw Xsâ A´y¯nepw Xm³ GI\mbncp¶p. B im´ Xoc¯v F¯phscbpw.

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